A centrifugal pump is much similar to any other pumps except the fact that it works on the principle basis of centrifugal force. An impeller that comes with attached vanes much like a turbine is the key functional unit of this pump. These pumps are equally useful in home, as well as in industrial spaces. This machine simply uses mechanical energy to generate pressure energy and uses the energy to pump water from low to high levels. In the process of this energy conversion, the machine uses centrifugal force. It is designed in such a way that the water inflow and outflow are superiorly controlled by the impeller. It requires mechanical energy from the outer source.
Different Parts of a Centrifugal Pump
Like any other pump, this is a water pumping machine tool and is designed to generate pressure energy for transportation of water and other liquids. This machine comprises of six major mechanical units, which are as follows:
- The impeller: As mentioned earlier it is the key part of the pump. It is due to the rotation of this part that the extremely high centrifugal force is generated. The impeller comes with blades or vanes that contribute greatly towards power generation.
- The axis of the pump: This part of the pump is crucial, as it is responsible for transmitting the torque of the mechanical energy generating motor unit straight to the impeller part.
- The sealing ring: This unique part lies between inner walls of the pump body and the impeller external edges. It mainly contributes towards three chief functions- to prevent inner leakage, to increase the time of operation, and to boost up the reflux resistance.
- The shell: The body of the centrifugal pump is referred to as the shell. It serves only one purpose i.e. supporting other important parts of the machinery and keeping everything compact.
- The stuffing box: This part holds parts like sealing pipes, sealing cage, etc. together and compact. It eliminates all extra spaces between the axis and the pump shell.
- The bearings: The bearings of a centrifugal pump mainly act to provide support to the pump axis. Both roller and slider type of bearings is used in this type of pumps.
Working Principle of the Centrifugal Pump
The entire working principle works around centrifugal force. As the vanes of the impeller start to rotate at a very high-speed centrifugal force is generated. This force creates a vacuum pressure that drives the water from low level through the machine to the outlet pipes. All the six components of the centrifugal pumps work in smooth harmony to achieve this single purpose, i.e. superior transportation of water against its basic nature
(As the true nature of water is to flow from high to low, but in this case, water is pumped from low to high).
Advantages of centrifugal pumps are following
- Highly efficient
- Hard wearing and resilient to wear and tear
- Cost efficient
- Neat and compact design
- Sturdy design
Applications of Centrifugal Pumps
The centrifugal pumps are widely used all over the world. A centrifugal pump has been found to be useful in following cases:
- It is used for both domestic and industrial water supply for transporting water to pneumatic or overhead tanks. In the case of shallow to deep wells, this type of pump is proven to be highly useful.
- These pumps are widely used by municipalities all over the world to boost water pressure. These pumps can work for prolonged hours automatically.
- They can be used for the purpose of sewage cleaning, as well.
- These pumps are best used for circulation of hot water supply.
Thus, these were the different aspects of the centrifugal pump.